Τετάρτη, 13 Απριλίου 2016

8 inventions the US stole from the Germans after WWII


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Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwable, the world's first jet fighter. (U.S. Air Force photo)


Guided Weapons
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Another innovative concept that emerged during WWII was in-flight guidance onto a moving target. One of the earliest examples was the Fritz X anti-ship bomb, first deployed by the German Air Force in 1943: An operator on the launch aircraft guided the bomb to its target using radio control. Around the same time the U.S. Navy deployed an even more sophisticated anti-ship bomb called the Bat, which used radar to home isolate the target without needing a human operator. Another anti-ship homing weapon was the Zaunkoenig torpedo, fitted to German U-boats from 1943 onward, which used underwater sound waves rather than radar to locate the target.

The Difficult Legacy of the Easter Rising


British Regulars sniping from behind a barricade of empty beer casks near the quays in Dublin during the 1916 Easter Rising. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)


The Easter Rising was one of the most important events in modern Irish history. Many believe that it was a glorious bid for freedom and others believed that it led to a century of political violence in the country.
Many believe that the Easter rising meant that political violence was acceptable and could be used in the name of Ireland. Many believe that the example of Easter 1916, legitimizes the violence of the I.R.A. and other nationalist groups from 1916 until today.
The Easter Rising was carried out by a small un-elected  group who claimed to be acting in the name of Ireland. The rising has been used by many terrorist groups to justify their campaigns of terror.

Panama Papers Shed Light on the Shadowy Art Market


A map featuring the names of companies set up by Mossack Fonseca, the faces of the collectors and financiers on whose behalf they were set up, and Amedeo Modigliani's "Seated Man with a Cane" (1918), recently seized following the Panama Papers leaks. (illustration by Benjamin Sutton/Hyperallergic)
A map featuring the names of companies set up by Mossack Fonseca, the faces of the collectors and financiers on whose behalf they were set up, and Amedeo Modigliani’s “Seated Man with a Cane” (1918), recently seized following the Panama Papers leaks. (all images by Benjamin Sutton/Hyperallergic)
Earlier this month, a cache of 11.5 million documents tracking the wheelings and dealings of more than 210,000 shell companies set up by Panamanian corporate services provider Mossack Fonseca began to make waves around the world. The so-called “Panama Papers” — which a mysterious source identified simply as “John Doe” began leaking to the German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung more than a year ago — have shed light on a secretive global network of wealth circulating undeclared and untaxed.
Armed with the Panama Papers, Süddeutsche Zeitung, the Washington, DC-based International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ), and a consortium of other news organizations have published reports and articles offering a glimpse into a world of financial sleight of hand that many know exist, but to which few ever gain access. Unsurprisingly, much of the wealth at play in this shadow economy is bound up in art.

The 9th-Century Islamic “Instrument Which Plays by Itself”


Allah's Automata
Illustration of the Archimedes automatic wind instrumentalist (image courtesy Hatje Cantz)
In 2009, Tokyo’s Waseda University built a fedora-sporting flautist robot powered by cranked air. But this is only the most recent attempt at a mechanical, flute-playing musician. In the 9th century, the Banū Mūsā brothers in Baghdad wrote a treatise describing their “instrument which plays by itself.”
Cover of 'Allah's Automata' courtesy Hatje Cantz) (click to enlarge)
Cover of ‘Allah’s Automata’ (image courtesy Hatje Cantz) (click to enlarge)

This recovered Bf 109 time capsule can be seen at the Planes of Fame museum






bf-109-wreck-russia-lake
This aircraft was built in 1939 and known to have flown in the Battle of France. In 1942 it was delivered to the Eastern Front by Arthur Mendl whereupon it was flown by the highly decorated German Pilot Wulf-Dietrich Widowitz (36 victories). On April 4th of 1942 Widowitz was shot down by a Soviet lend-lease (rather, in reality “lend-keep”) Hurricane whilst on an escort mission. Hits to his engine were followed by a forced, near perfect, wheels-up landing on the ice of a frozen lake. The aircraft then sank through the ice and came to rest on the lakebed where it remained untouched until the recovery in 2003. Widowitz died more than a year later during another crash landing.
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The base layer of paint on this aircraft is desert-sand brown, even though this aircraft apparently never served in North Africa. There are a number of small-caliber projectile holes in the wings (I presume .30 cal.), some of which entered the wings from above and behind at a very low angle. At least one .30-cal. hole fired from directly below is in the right horizontal stabilizer (shown in the accompanying photos), suggesting that this aircraft also took small-arms fire from the ground. There is what appears to be a very large cannon-projectile hole in the right wing root, fired from above and behind. This may have been the coup-de-gras that took this airplane down. April, 4, 1942 was definitely not a real good day for pilot Wulf-Dietrich source:

The pioneer of modern dance, Loie Fuller performed like a dancing angel





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Loie Fuller was an American dancer who was a pioneer of both modern dance and theatrical lighting techniques.Born Marie Louise Fuller in the Chicago suburb of Fullersburg, now Hinsdale, Illinois, Fuller began her theatrical career as a professional child actress and later choreographed and performed dances inburlesque (as a skirt dancer), vaudeville, and circus shows. An early free dance practitioner, Fuller developed her own natural movement and improvisation techniques. Fuller combined her choreography with silk costumes illuminated by multi-coloured lighting of her own design.



Loie Fuller (1862-1928) programme cover, Concerts Colonne directed by Gabriel Pierné, Paris, 1914.Source
Loie Fuller (1862-1928) programme cover, Concerts Colonne directed by Gabriel Pierné, Paris, 1914.Source


Source:Library of congres
Source:

Source Library of congres
Source Library of congress
Although Fuller became famous in America through works such as the serpentine dance (1891), she felt that she was not taken seriously by the public who still thought of her as an actress. Her warm reception in Paris during a European tour persuaded Fuller to remain in France and continue her work. A regular performer at the Folies Bergère with works such as Fire Dance, Fuller became the embodiment of the Art Nouveau movement. An 1896 film of the Serpentine Dance[1] by the pioneering film-makers Auguste and Louis Lumière gives a hint of what her performance was like. (The unknown dancer in the film is often mistakenly identified as Fuller herself.)Fuller’s pioneering work attracted the attention, respect, and friendship of many French artists and scientists, including Jules Chéret, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, François-Raoul Larche, Henri-Pierre Roché, Auguste Rodin, Franz von Stuck, Maurice Denis, Thomas Theodor Heine, Koloman Moser, Demetre Chiparus, Stéphane Mallarmé, and Marie Curie

Μάνος Ξυδούς 1953 – 2010


Μάνος Ξυδούς

Ο τραγουδοποιός Μάνος Ξυδούς γεννήθηκε στις 15 Μαΐου του 1953 στους Αγίους Αναργύρους, από πατέρα Μήλειο και μητέρα Κρητικιά.
Η πρώτη του επαφή με τη μουσική ήταν στα νεανικά του χρόνια, όταν έπιασε δουλειά ως κλητήρας στην τότε Columbia στη Ριζούπολη. Μετά την αποφοίτησή του από το σχολείο έδωσε εξετάσεις και πέρασε στην Ανωτάτη Σχολή Οικονομικών Επιστημών και όταν τελείωσε τη σχολή σπούδασε marketing. Η μουσική όμως κυλούσε στις φλέβες του, γι’ αυτό και παράλληλα με τις σπουδές του δούλευε ως DJ στις «Καρυάτιδες» της Πλάκας.

Γκίντερ Γκρας 1927 – 2015


Γκίντερ Γκρας

Γερμανός ποιητής, πεζογράφος, θεατρικός συγγραφέας, γλύπτης και γραφίστας, η φωνή της μεταπολεμικής Γερμανίας, όπως αποκαλείται. Θεωρείται μία από τις σημαντικότερες προσωπικότητες της γερμανόφωνης λογοτεχνίας, βραβευμένος με Νόμπελ το 1999.
Ο Γκίντερ Γκρας (Gunter Grass) γεννήθηκε στο Ντάντσιχ (σημερινό Γκντανσκ της Πολωνίας) στις 16 Οκτωβρίου του 1927 από γερμανό πατέρα και πολωνή μητέρα. Μαθητής Γυμνασίου τη δεκαετία του ’30 εισέρχεται στη νεολαία του Ναζιστικού Κόμματος. Στρατεύεται στα 16 του και τραυματίζεται σε μάχη το 1945, λίγο πριν από την παράδοση του Γ’ Ράιχ.

Κωνσταντίνος Δεμερτζής 1876 – 1936


Κωνσταντίνος Δεμερτζής
Νομομαθής, πανεπιστημιακός δάσκαλος και πολιτικός, που διατέλεσε για μικρό διάστημα και πρωθυπουργός.Γεννήθηκε το 1876 στην Αθήνα και σπούδασε νομικά στα Πανεπιστήμια Αθηνών και Μονάχου. Επέστρεψε στην Αθήνα το 1900 και άρχισε να δικηγορεί. Το 1904 ανακηρύχθηκε υφηγητής του Ρωμαϊκού Δικαίου στο Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών, όπου δίδαξε επί τετραετία.
Πολιτεύτηκε για πρώτη φορά μετά το στρατιωτικό κίνημα του 1909 με το κόμμα των Φιλελευθέρων και εξελέγη βουλευτής Αττικοβοιωτίας το 1910 και το 1912. Το 1911 διορίσθηκε μέλος της Επιτροπής για τη σύνταξη του Αστικού Κώδικα και συνέβαλε σε μεγάλο βαθμό στη διαμόρφωσή του. Από τις 9 Νοεμβρίου 1913 έως τις 9 Νοεμβρίου 1914 διατέλεσε Υπουργός Ναυτικών στην κυβέρνηση του Ελευθέριου Βενιζέλου. Η λήξη της θητείας του σήμανε και την αποχώρησή του από το Κόμμα των Φιλελευθέρων, λόγω διαφωνίας.

Αλμανάκ Βασική Έκδοση 13 Απριλίου

Προβάλλονται μόνο τα σημαντικότερα!
Η πλήρης έκδοση της ημερομηνίας αυτής περιλαμβάνει 99 Γεγονότα, 33 Γεννήσεις και 25 Θανάτους.
Για να δείτε την πλήρη έκδοση ή να ενεργοποιήσετε τα φίλτρα θα πρέπει πρώτα να συνδεθείτε.   Δεν είστε ακόμα συνδρομητής; Μάθετε περισσότερα!
H Πλήρης Έκδοση διατίθεται και ως eBook στο Κατάστημα!  
μ. Χ.
1822
Οι πολιορκημένοι από τους Τούρκους στον πύργο του Ζαφειράκη στη Νάουσα πραγματοποιούν ηρωική έξοδο. 13 κορίτσια της Νάουσας, μανάδες και παιδιά, συγκεντρώνονται στη γέφυρα της Αραπίτσας και ρίχνονται στον καταρράκτη, επαναλαμβάνοντας το χορό του Ζαλόγγου.

ISIS Expands Reach Despite Military and Financial Setbacks


Airstrikes, like this one on Kobani, Syria, in 2014, have killed thousands of Islamic State fighters in Iraq and Syria. Credit Sedat Suna/European Pressphoto Agency
WASHINGTON — American airstrikes have killed 25,000 Islamic State fighters in Iraq and Syria and incinerated millions of dollars plundered by the militants, according to Pentagon officials.
Iraqi and Kurdish forces have taken back 40 percent of the militant group’s land in Iraq, the officials say, and forces backed by the West have seized a sizable amount of territory in Syria that had been controlled by the Islamic State, also known as ISIS or ISIL.

ΓΟΥΡΙ ΓΚΑΓΚΑΡΙΝ-55 ΧΡΟΝΙΑ ΣΤΟ ΔΙΑΣΤΗΜΑ( Μικρή συλλογή άρθρων)

Α)Γιούρι Γκαγκάριν: «Παγιέχαλι»*! …

Ακριβώς πριν από 55 χρόνια ο Γκαγκάριν άνοιξε τον δρόμο για τ’ αστέρια

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Γράφει ο Γρηγόρης Τραγγανίδας
Ακριβώς πριν 55 χρόνια, στις 12 Απρίλη του 1961, η ανθρωπότητα έκανε το σημαντικότερο βήμα της για την εξερεύνηση του διαστήματος. Ενας 27χρονος Σοβιετικός πιλότος, ο Γιούρι Γκαγκάριν, θα γινόταν ο πρώτος κοσμοναύτης της πατρίδας του και όλου του κόσμου, αφού ήταν ο πρώτος άνθρωπος που θα έβλεπε την Γη από τροχιά.
Αυτά τα 108 λεπτά που κράτησε η διαστημική πτήση του επανδρωμένου διαστημοπλοίου,«Βοστόκ – 1», θα αποτελούν για πάντα ένα από τα μεγαλύτερα επιστημονικά επιτεύγματα του 20ού αιώνα, όπως και όλων των εποχών, αλλά και μια από τις σπουδαιότερες επιστημονικές προσφορές της Σοβιετικής Ενωσης και του σοσιαλισμού στην παγκόσμια πρόοδο.

Archaeologists discover the oldest glass kilns in Israel that produced Judaean greenish glass


Oldest_Glass_Kilns_Israel_Judaea-Roman_1A fragment of greenish glass found at the site. Credit: Shmuel Magal, courtesy of Israel Antiquities Authority
A fascinating new archaeological discovery alludes to how northern Israel was history’s original ‘Silicon Valley’. In an excavation conducted by Israel Antiquities Authority, the researchers came across large Roman-era glass production kilns in an area east of Haifa. These kilns date from around 4th century AD (corresponding to the late Roman Empire era), thus making them the oldest glassworks ever found in Israel. In essence, the discovery pretty much proves how ancient Judaea was one of the major glass production areas in the ancient times. And interestingly enough, this site lies in proximity to the Khirbet ‘Asafna, another zone that was known to have antediluvian workshops for manufacturing glass vessels.

Yael Gorin-Rosen, head curator of the Israel Antiquities Authority Glass Department, said –

Pyramid of Cestius: The 2,000-year old ancient pyramid in…Rome


Pyramid_of_Cestius_Rome_1
We have talked about the Great Pyramid of Giza, and how the massive structure has baffled historians throughout the ages by not only its size but also by its abstruse construction process. But as it turns out, in the ancient times, pyramids were not only limited to the African continent – as is evident from the still existing Pyramid of Cestius. Presumed to be built between 18 and 12 BC, the structure (situated along the Via Ostiensis in Rome) was erected during the reign of the famed Augustus. As for its size, the monument being certainly dwarfed by the Egyptian pyramids, is still substantially imposing – with a square base of 29.5 m (around 97 ft) on all sides, and a height of 36.4 m (around 120 ft).

Roman soldiers will ride to glory once more at Hadrian’s Wall

Spectacular cavalry battles are to be restaged as part of an ambitious six-month exhibition
Roman imperial cavalrymen reconstructed. Photograph: www.comitatus.net. Roman imperial cavalrymen reconstructed.
The popular image of a Roman soldier is of an infantryman armed with sword and shield, marching in formation down one of the arrow-straight roads of the empire. But leading archaeologists, historians and heritage groups are now planning an exhibition to pay tribute to an unsung section of the mightiest army of the ancient world – its cavalry.
Next year, between April and September, the world’s largest-ever re-enactment of Roman cavalry battles will take place along Hadrian’s Wall. The war games will form part of an ambitious six-month exhibition, Hadrian and His Cavalry, bringing together treasures from worldwide public and private collections that have been lent to 10 museums and heritage sites along the wall. These will include the magnificent cavalry helmets and richly ornate armour that made Hadrian’s equestrian troops an awe-inspiring sight.
Organisers hope to challenge the assumption that foot soldiers dominated the frontier garrisons and to demonstrate the key role played by the cavalry in projecting the power of Imperial Rome.
Bill Griffiths, head of programmes for Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums and chair of the project steering group, described the cavalry’s armour as “shiny and showy”. “It’s bling. Hadrian’s cavalry was a showy part of the army, more highly decorated than the infantry’s equipment. Think of the horseguards [today]. It’s very much in that vein of looking the part.”
Dr Jon Coulston of the University of St Andrews, a leading academic on military equipment and the Roman army, said: “The objects are to die for – visually gorgeous. The Roman army is probably the sexiest area of Roman archaeology as far the public is concerned.”
As emperor between AD117 and 138, Hadrian focused his energy on consolidating the empire, strengthening the frontiers’ defence rather than pursuing further conquests. On a visit to Britain in 122, he ordered the construction of the coast-to-coast defensive barrier that became one of Britain’s most famous landmarks. His wall, made of stone and turf was up to 4m tall and 3m thick, with watchtowers every third of a mile, and spanned 73 miles from Wallsend (Segedunum) on the Tyne in the east, to Bowness on the Solway Firth in the west.
A series of forts along the wall, half a day’s march apart, could house up to 1,000 men. Wooden tablets recovered from Vindolanda, a frontline fort, record details of daily life and the practicalities of keeping the “wretched little Britons” in order. One soldier received a package from home with a note: “I have sent you … socks … two pairs of sandals and two pairs of underpants.”
The cavalry was well-fed, dining on venison and oysters washed down with beer and wine. An excavation at Segedunum discovered that cavalry horses were stabled next to the troopers in customised barrack blocks.
The re-enactment will be based on eulogies from Hadrian himself and from Arrian, the governor of Cappadocia, in modern Turkey. In one speech, Hadrian said of his cavalry: “You shot stones from slings and fought with javelins; everywhere you jumped nimbly on to your horses.”
Arrian wrote: “From the helmets hang plumes of yellow hair, not for any practical purpose but to make a fine show. When the horses charge, if there happens to be even a slight breeze, they present a splendid spectacle.” He described training exercises in which horsemen hurled javelins at “target” teams of men and horses in protective armour.
While re-enactment societies are increasing in popularity worldwide, with various companies in India manufacturing Roman military equipment, there is a serious academic side to these exercises, said Coulston.
“It’s not boys and their toys. It’s about technology, economy, metallurgy, culture, art history. Most of the showy stuff was practical. It made them distinctive on the battlefield. If they did something brave, they would be instantly recognised and get military decorations. That was all part of the ethos of achievement and attainment.” Their bravery was often recorded on their gravestones.
The re-enactments will also provide unique insights into the training and tactics of the Roman cavalry, such as the design of cavalry saddles, which enabled cavalrymen to lean out to the side with a long sword or spear or to shoot in any direction with a bow.
Griffiths said: “This is a great archaeological experiment, and fun.”
Coulston spoke to the Observer ahead of a major Roman military equipment conference, entitled Cavalry in the Roman World, which takes place this June in St Andrews. Archaeologists, military historians and classicists are among around 50 speakers. There will also be a small re-enactment, with armoured cavalry and horse-archery displays.
This article was amended on 11 April 2016 to remove a reference to Roman infantrymen as toga-clad.

Map of Europe's Tribes (Maximum Size)

This vast map covers just about all possible tribes that were documented in the first centuries BC and AD, mostly by the Romans and Greeks. Some migration was involved during this time, and some tribal divisions too, so there may be a…
www.historyfiles.co.uk|Από P L Kessler

Amazing Facts About The Junkers Ju-87 Stuka




Norwegen, Flugzeug Junkers Ju 87
The Stuka got its nickname from the German word Sturzkampfflugzeug or dive-bomber, the official designation was Junkers Ju-87.
The first plane that would be recognized as a Stuka flew in 1936 and the plane was blooded in the Spanish Civil War.
Between 1936 and Aug 1944, more than 6,000 Stuka bombers were built in 5 variants: A-G

The Samnite Wars, Paving the Way for the Roman Empire.


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The Roman Republic was a magnificent entity. It had its problems, as all governments do, but the men served it proudly and it took many decades before power was continually seized by the likes of Sulla and Caesar. The Republic’s heyday was during and just after the second Punic War, taking advantage of the experiences gained to conquer more of the Mediterranean. This great success was largely due to an earlier set of epic wars, much closer to home for the Romans. These were the Samnite Wars of 343-290 BCE.
Rome’s position prior to the Samnite Wars is almost laughable. They had fairly recently conquered their great rival city of Veii, less than ten miles away. They had expanded after that, taking down the Latin League and extended south down the coast.

Rare Photographs the Aftermath of Battle of Monte Cassino, ca. 1944


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The Battle of Monte Cassino was a costly series of four assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign of World War II. The intention was a breakthrough to Rome.

Making things go with a bang – the matchlock musket!

The Earl of Manchester's Regiment of Foote blog

The official blog of the English Civil War re-enactment group! Visit our website at www.earlofmanchesters.co.uk


This is a matchlock musket.

Doesn’t look like much? Well, technically it’s not – it’s essentially a tube with a small hole at one end and a big hole at the other. But this simple piece of steel and wood changed the face of warfare forever.

The musket is quite a basic weapon, but the process of loading and firing it was slow and dangerous. At the bottom of the barrel, a small hole lead to a ‘pan’, into which a small amount of gunpowder is poured. More gunpowder is then poured down the barrel, followed by paper wadding and a round lead musketball. These are compacted together using a long stick called a scouring stick, compressing the gunpowder so that it explodes with more force when ignited. Thin rope called match cord, impregnated with saltpetre (potassium nitrate) so that it burnt very slowly, is attached to the ‘serpent’ on the side of the barrel; this is connected to the trigger. When the trigger is pulled, it dips the burning match cord into the gunpowder in the pan, which in turns burns through the small hole and ignites the gunpowder in the barrel.

In the Shadow of the Bum Courts

Is it a footballer? Is it an MP?
No… it’s a Superinjunction!
Yes, the infamous writ of Shut-The-Hell-Up is back. Someone’s been bad. But because they’re rich we’re not, repeat not, allowed to talk about it. Unless we’re in Parliament, or Scotland, or anywhere in the world part from England and Wales.
The superinjunction is a fascinating concept. Setting aside the legal and moral questions, it’s fundamentally aimed at preventing someone’s shame and embarrassment. It’s a startling reminder that we’re not that different to those who came before us. Public shame is a powerful tool, as it always has been.
In fact, lots of the terms we use for this sordid world of embarrassment come from our past. Those who misbehave are ‘pilloried’. Twitter mobs – like the revolting peasants of old – reach for their ‘pitchforks’. We have ‘witch-hunts’.

When He Ran Out of Grenades He Started Throwing Empty Beer Bottles and Earned the Victoria Cross


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War tends to favor those with initiative and ingenuity and for Victoria Cross recipient Bill Speakman, he would evidently possess both.  Some might think when a human wave of Chinese soldiers came rushing at your position that it is a good time to dig in and fight defensively.  Private Bill Speakman thought it an opportunity to charge.
One might think when the ammunition has run out that it is a good time to retreat.  Private Bill Speakman thought it an opportunity to pick up empty beer bottles and hurl them as weapons. And for his actions in Korea in 1951, bottle throwing Private Bill Speakman would be awarded the Victoria Cross.

Pedal car history goes back to the 1890s …

Beautiful Vintage "Kidillac" sourceBeautiful Vintage “Kidillac”



Beautiful Vintage “Kidillac” source
The heyday for pedal cars in the United States occurred between the World Wars. For example, pedal cars were fixtures in Sears catalogs. Unfortunately, they could only be sent to customers who lived near railroad tracks because mailing a steel car, even a small one, was simply not possible. Other companies that made pedal cars in the ’20s and ’30s included American National Automobiles of Toledo and Steelcraft of Murray, both based in Ohio.
Among other products, Steelcraft made GMC pedal trucks, as well as Mack dumptrucks, Model T Roadsters, Dodge Runabouts, and a Chrysler Roadster, which had bullet-shaped headlights and rubber tires. Steelcraft’s Chrysler was 50-inches long, and could be yours for only $31.50.

Must Read! The D-Day Landings in Numbers






Here are the numbers that tell you everything you need to know about D-Day.
2 Mulberry Harbours: A raid on Dieppe had taught the British that a defended port town would be hard to capture, so instead they created two prefabricated harbours from massive hollow concrete blocks. These were floated across the Channel and used to create artificial harbours at the landing sites, allowing supplies and troops to be landed.

The poor and strange Greek Stratioti who was member of the Freifechter Guild


By George. E. Georgas, fencing coach, Pammachon Hellenic Martial Art Instructor, and Research Scholar for the Meyer Freifechter Guild.
I thank my student and member of the Academy of Historical European Martial Arts ‘Leontes’, Mr. Aggelos Pilidis for his translation from Greek to English language
In previous articles I have proven with evidence taken both from historical sources and from works of art that, during the Renaissance, the Greek (and Albanian )  Stratioti were serving under European armies, like those of the Most Serene Republic of Venice and the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. These poor, strange soldiers were so popular that they ended up having great impact on the martial arts of their employers.

The coat of Arms of the Freifechter Guild
The coat of Arms of the Freifechter Guild
I was also under the suspicion that the Greek mercenaries that were serving the German empire had come in contact with the German fighting guilds and brotherhoods. I first had this thought reading the books of the last Master of Arms that followed the teachings of Liechtenauer. He mentioned that in his travels he had met and trained under some foreign, exotic warriors. I am of course referring to the Master of Arms and Freifechter Joachim Meyer.

B-52 Remains America’s Most Revered Aircraft


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The B-52 bomber has been America’s most well-known, revered, and feared aircraft of the last 60 years and is still going strong. The bomber has served in U.S. military operations from the Vietnam War to the most recent war in Afghanistan, and the US Air Force has plans to keep her flying for another 20 years.
It is nothing short of a miracle that the B-52, originally manufactured in the 1950s, can keep flying and stay relevant against modern technology such as drones and stealth jets

Old German Records Shed New Light on Postwar Operations




Germany has held many secrets since the end of World War II. A file that has been untouched for nearly six decades has finally been opened and it reveals some interesting facts.
The documents show that there were nearly 2,000 former German officers – veterans of the Nazi Wehrmacht or the Waffen-SS – who tried to put together an army in postwar Germany in 1949. Those men had made preparations without any mandates from the German government. The parliament didn’t even know about these plans for a postwar army.

Bible was possibly written earlier, as suggested by (very) early 6th century BC level of literacy


Bible_Possibly_Written_Earlier_Judah_Literacy_1The desert fortress of Arad.
Many people tend to (misleadingly) identify the Bible as a single book; whereas it actually encompasses a compilation of sacred texts from both Judaism and Christianity. Simply put, from the historical perspective, Bible consists of a collection of scriptures that were not only composed by different authors, but were created at different time periods in different geographical locations. Now beyond the multifarious ‘scope’ of the Bible, there has always been a debate on when the first batch of these sacred texts was composed – with some scholars leaning towards the hypothesis that they were created after the destruction of Jerusalem (Judah’s capital city) in 586 BC, by Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar. But a new research, aided by advanced technological ambit, has shed light into how the literacy level of Judah was relatively high even during early 6th century BC. In essence, this discovery alludes to how some of the earlier texts of the Torah (part of the Old Testament) were possibly conceived just before the baleful event when Jerusalem was sacked and its inhabitants were exiled, in 586 BC.

The pertinent connection to relatively high levels of literacy in (very) early 6th century BC was found in a series of correspondence between military forces of Judah. The scope pertains to around 16 inscriptions found inside the desert fortress of Arad, which was located west of Dead Sea. These inscriptions comprised ceramic shards that were etched with ink script, and all of them were dated from around 600 BC. Better known as ostraca (pictured below), such shard-inscribed forms of communication were pretty common during that period of time. As for their content, the writings involved simple military-oriented stuff – with commands relating to provision of wine and food, along with the movement of troops. Here are two examples –