Κυριακή, 10 Απριλίου 2016

4 Improvised Weapons used in the 1944 Warsaw Uprising




The invasion of Poland on September 1st, 1939 marked the beginning of the Second World War. Polish people had a long history of occupation and had only formed their Republic shortly after WWI. After Hitler invaded Poland and the Soviet Union occupied the eastern part of the country, following the Molotov-Ribentrop agreement, the Polish Army was disbanded, but a resistance movement was formed in 1942 which gathered a lot of popular support. It was called the Polish Home Army.

The ME 323 Giant – The biggest transport Aircraft of WWII in Pictures




Flugzeug Me 323 Gigant
The Messerschmitt Me 323 Gigant (“Giant”) was a German military transport aircraft of World War II. It was a powered variant of the Me 321 military glider and was the largest land-based transport aircraft of the war. A total of 213 are recorded as having been made, a few being converted from the Me 321.
All images by the Bundesarchiv / Wikipedia, click on them for a larger version.
General characteristics
  • Crew: 5
  • Capacity: 130 troops or 10–12 tonnes of equipment
  • Length: 28.2 m (92 ft 4 in)
  • Wingspan: 55.2 m (181 ft 0 in)
  • Height: 10.15 m (33 ft 3.5 in)
  • Wing area: 300 m² (3,228 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 27,330 kg (60,260 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 29,500 kg (65,000 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 43,000 kg (94,815 lb)
  • Powerplant: 6 × Gnome-Rhône 14N-48/49, 1180 PS for take-off (868 kW) each
Performance
  • Maximum speed: 285 km/h (177 mph (154 kn))
  • Cruise speed: 218 km/h (136 mph (118 kn))
  • Range: 800 km (500 mi)
  • Ferry range: 1,100 km (684 mi)
  • Service ceiling: 4,000 m (13,123 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 3.6 m/s (710 ft/min)

Ο Ρίχτερ και οι εβραϊκές αποζημιώσεις


Posted by Abravanel, the Blog στο 22/02/2016
Κατάλληλο επιμύθιο της Δίκης Ρίχτερ υπήρξαν οι δηλώσεις Ρίχτερ οτι οι αποζημιώσεις τις Γερμανίας πήγαν μόνο στους Εβραίους που ψήφιζαν ΕΡΕ. Στην πραγματικότητα ο Ρίχτερ μπέρδεψε τις πολεμικές αποζημιώσεις με τις αποζημιώσεις σε θύματα φυλετικών διώξεων αλλά δεν πειράζει – για τις πολεμικές αποζημιώσεις διάβασε τον Χάγκεν Φλάισερ. Τώρα αγαπητέ αναγνώστη είναι λογικό να σκεφτείς οτι για να το λέει Γερμανός ιστορικός μάλλον κάτι παραπάνω θα ξέρει και δικό μου συμφέρον είναι να το αρνηθώ. Σε καταλαβαίνω αγαπητέ αναγνώστη, εδώ οι αγρότες θεωρούν οτι οι Εβραίοι φταίνε για την Κρίση – δύσκολα θα σε πείσω αν είσαι ήδη σίγουρος. Το μόνο που μπορώ να πω, χωρίς αυτό να είναι προφανώς τεκμηριωμένη ανάρτηση είναι ορισμένα γεγονότα, (πολλά στοιχεία από την έκθεση Μαγκλιβέρα στο ΚΙΣ):

Οι πρόσφυγες με τα γυαλιά της Δύσης

Άκουσα σήμερα από έναν πρόσφυγα τούτο:Βγήκαν κυνηγημένοι σ’ένα ελληνικό νησί. Μαγαζιά, σπίτια, πόρτες, παράθυρα, έκλεισαν όλα μονομιάς. Αυτός με τη γυναίκα του μέσα στο κοπάδι. Το μωρό έξι μέρες να τραφεί· έκλαιγε, χαλνούσε τον κόσμο. Η γυναίκα παρακαλούσε για νερό. Τέλος από ένα σπίτι της αποκρίθηκαν: «Ένα φράγκο το ποτήρι». Κι ο πατέρας συνεχίζει: «Τι να κάνω, κυρ Στράτη, έφτυσα μέσα στο στόμα του παιδιού μου για να το ξεδιψάσω». πηγή
Την δεκαετία  μεταξύ 1912 και 1922 μια σειρά πολέμων μεταξύ των Βαλκανικών κρατών προκάλεσε εκατομμύρια προσφύγων. Κατά την διάρκεια αυτών των μετακινήσεων εκατοντάδες χιλιάδες πέθαναν όχι απλώς ως παράπλευρες απώλειες των πολεμικών επιχειρήσεων, αλλά και καθώς προσπαθούσαν να ξεφύγουν από αυτές. Συγκεκριμένα στο Αιγαίο χιλιάδες, κυρίως Ελληνες Χριστιανοί, βρήκαν το θάνατο κατά την διάρκεια της μεταφοράς από την Μικρά Ασία προς την Ελλάδα.

The Real Fury: Patton’s Disastrous Hammelburg Raid to Free His Son-in-Law


An M4 medium tank of the 47th Tank Bn., 14th Armored Division crashes into the prison compound at Oflag XIII-B, 6 April 1945 two weeks after the failed Task Force Baum raid.


An M4 medium tank of the 47th Tank Bn., 14th Armored Division crashes into the prison compound at Oflag XIII-B, 6 April 1945 two weeks after the failed Task Force Baum raid.
An M4 medium tank of the 47th Tank Bn., 14th Armored Division crashes into the prison compound at Oflag XIII-B, 6 April 1945 two weeks after the failed Task Force Baum raid.
In February 1943, the U.S. Army had its first major engagement with the forces of Nazi Germany ending  with their disastrous defeat at Kasserine Pass in Tunisia. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, the Desert Fox had gotten the better of them in what would be his last major victory against the Allies

Mini-drones, coming to a squad near you

 
Mini-drones, coming to a squad near youMilitary Times reports that the Army is looking to equip squads with mini-drones:
The Army is moving forward with a plan to put pocket-sized drones in the hands of its dismounted soldiers by 2018.
The service on March 1 requested information papers from industry on what technology might be available for what it’s calling Soldier Borne Sensors. The Maneuver Center of Excellence at Fort Benning, Georgia, has a preliminary set of requirements and plans to go back-and-forth with industry on what already exists or could become quickly available.
“We’ve had numerous studies as well as experimentation within our battle labs. We continue to see that soldiers are kind of lacking at the squad level for relevant information that’s immediately around them,” said Phil Cheatum, deputy branch chief of electronics and special developments at MCoE.

Κατάρες σε ανταγωνιστές από ταβερνιάρη σε αρχαία πινάκια


Κατάρες κατά ιδιοκτητών ταβερνών βρίσκονται χαραγμένες σε αρχαία πινάκια -ηλικίας 2.400 ετών- που βρέθηκαν σε τάφο γυναίκας στον Πειραιά.
Επιστήμονες εκτιμούν ότι οι κατάρες ίσως να είναι έργο ανταγωνιστή ταβερνιάρη.
Σε τέσσερα από τα πέντε πινάκια που βρέθηκαν ήταν χαραγμένες κατάρες που επικαλούνταν τα ονόματα θεοτήτων του Κάτω Κόσμου και τους ζητούσαν να κάνουν κακό σε τέσσερα ζευγάρια ιδιοκτητών ταβέρνας της εποχής.
Το πέμπτο πινάκιο -σύμφωνα με την ιστοσελίδα Live Science- ήταν κενό. Πιθανότατα, η κατάρα λεγόταν προφορικά πάνω από το πινάκιο.

Αλμανάκ Βασική Έκδοση 7 Απριλίου

Προβάλλονται μόνο τα σημαντικότερα!
Η πλήρης έκδοση της ημερομηνίας αυτής περιλαμβάνει 99 Γεγονότα, 35 Γεννήσεις και 21 Θανάτους.
Για να δείτε την πλήρη έκδοση ή να ενεργοποιήσετε τα φίλτρα θα πρέπει πρώτα να συνδεθείτε.   Δεν είστε ακόμα συνδρομητής; Μάθετε περισσότερα!
H Πλήρης Έκδοση διατίθεται και ως eBook στο Κατάστημα!  




μ. Χ.
529
Ο αυτοκράτορας του Βυζαντίου Ιουστινιανός εκδίδει ένα θεμελιώδες νομικό σύγγραμμα, τον «Ιουστινιάνειο Κώδικα» (Corpus Juris Civilis).

The ‘Byzantine fist’


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By Kostas Dervenis
George Georgas recently published an article on Byzantine boxing I found interesting, primarily because the accompanying illustration depicted two boxers utilizing what I used to call the “Hellenic fist”. This fist is a staple of Pammachon, and it is time to bring it to the public’s attention.
I first took note of this fist in the Odyssey, during Odysseus’ fight with the beggar Irus. This was an interesting duel where Homer clearly describes the difference between the warrior and the brawler in one concise paragraph

The Pentagon doesn't know who’s in charge for responding to a massive cyber attack


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The Pentagon does not have a clear chain of command for responding to a massive cyber attack on domestic targets in the United States, according to the federal government's principal watchdog.
While some Defense Department documents say that U.S. Northern Command would have primary responsibility for supporting civilian agencies in such an event, other documents suggest U.S. Cyber Command should be leading that effort, the Government Accountability Office found, according to a new report published Monday.

Jurassic Park of Aviation Found! How WWII Built Aircraft Still Struggle For Survival In New Age




The remnants of an abandoned airplane stretched out in the Desert of “Memories of bygone days“. The type has long gone extinct. Except for a couple of airframes that survive in Museums as static displays, you will never see them back in the Skies. This tale of desolation counts for many aircraft of the 1940’s, 1950’s, 1960’s and 1970’s. Yet, a few types have escaped this fate. Their Day of Doom has been delayed for a couple of magic reasons. Come visit the Jurassic Park of Aviation with me in this Dakota Hunter Blog.

Κρις Κάιλ 1974 – 2013


Κρις Κάιλ

Αμερικανός υπαξιωματικός του Ναυτικού, ο πιο διάσημος ελεύθερος σκοπευτής στη στρατιωτική ιστορία των Ηνωμένων Πολιτειών της Αμερικής με 160 επιβεβαιωμένους θανάτους.
Ο Κρίστοφερ Σκοτ «Κρις» Κάιλ (Cristopher Scott «Chris» Kyle) γεννήθηκε στις 8 Απριλίου 1974 στην Οδησσό του Τέξας. Από μικρός μυήθηκε στη χρήση των όπλων από τον πατέρα του, που ήταν δεινός ελαφοκυνηγός.

Ελαφηβόλια



Γιορτή της αρχαίας Αθήνας προς τιμήν της θεάς Αρτέμιδας, που με τα βέλη της σκότωνε ελάφια (Ελαφηβόλος). Από την γιορτή πήρε την ονομασία του και ο μήνας Ελαφοβηλιών.
Τα «Ελαφηβόλια» τελούνταν μάλλον κατά τη γενέθλια ημερομηνία της Αρτέμιδας (στις 6 του Ελαφηβολιώνος), σταδιακά όμως έχασαν τη σημασία τους, ενόψει της σπουδαιότητας που απέκτησαν με το χρόνο τα «Μεγάλα Διονύσια».

Αλμανάκ Βασική Έκδοση 8 Απριλίου

Προβάλλονται μόνο τα σημαντικότερα!
Η πλήρης έκδοση της ημερομηνίας αυτής περιλαμβάνει 97 Γεγονότα, 36 Γεννήσεις και 27 Θανάτους.
Για να δείτε την πλήρη έκδοση ή να ενεργοποιήσετε τα φίλτρα θα πρέπει πρώτα να συνδεθείτε.   Δεν είστε ακόμα συνδρομητής; Μάθετε περισσότερα!
H Πλήρης Έκδοση διατίθεται και ως eBook στο Κατάστημα!  
μ. Χ.
1820
Ο αγρότης Γιώργος Κεντρωτάς, σκάβοντας στο κτήμα του στη Μήλο, ανακαλύπτει ένα γυναικείο άγαλμα. Είναι η πασίγνωστη σήμερα Αφροδίτη της Μήλου, που βρίσκεται στο Μουσείο του Λούβρου και την οποία απέκτησαν οι Γάλλοι από τους κυρίαρχους του νησιού Οθωμανούς.

Μεσολυμπιάδα


Παναθηναϊκό Στάδιο, Μεσολυμπιάδα, 1906Παναθηναϊκό Στάδιο, Μεσολυμπιάδα, 1906

Βραχύβια αθλητική διοργάνωση, επιπέδου Ολυμπιακών Αγώνων, που διεξήχθη τον Απρίλιο του 1906 στην Αθήνα, ενδιαμέσως των Ολυμπιακών Αγώνων του Αγίου Λουδοβίκου (1904) και του Λονδίνου (1908), εξ ου και Μεσολυμπιάδα. Ο επίσημος τίτλος της ήταν Β' Διεθνείς Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες.
Η διοργάνωση αυτή προέκυψε ως μια συμβιβαστική λύση μεταξύ της Ελλάδας που ζητούσε τη μόνιμη τέλεση των Ολυμπιακών Αγώνων στην Αθήνα και του βαρώνου Ντε Κουμπερτέν και κατ' επέκταση της Διεθνούς Ολυμπιακής Επιτροπής που προέκρινε τη διεθνοποίηση των Αγώνων. Η λύση που δόθηκε ήταν να διεξάγεται κάθε δύο χρόνια μια Μεσολυμπιάδα στην Αθήνα και κάθε τέσσερα χρόνια οι Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες σε μια διαφορετική χώρα του κόσμου.

Αλμανάκ Βασική Έκδοση 9 Απριλίου

Προβάλλονται μόνο τα σημαντικότερα!
Η πλήρης έκδοση της ημερομηνίας αυτής περιλαμβάνει 97 Γεγονότα, 34 Γεννήσεις και 22 Θανάτους.
Για να δείτε την πλήρη έκδοση ή να ενεργοποιήσετε τα φίλτρα θα πρέπει πρώτα να συνδεθείτε.   Δεν είστε ακόμα συνδρομητής; Μάθετε περισσότερα!
H Πλήρης Έκδοση διατίθεται και ως eBook στο Κατάστημα!  




π. Χ.
421
Αθήνα και Σπάρτη υπογράφουν την Ειρήνη του Νικία στη διάρκεια του Πελοποννησιακού Πολέμου. Τερματίζεται η α’ φάση του Πελοποννησιακού Πολέμου.
μ. Χ.
1829
Ο Γκίκας Βούλγαρης είναι ο πρώτος Έλληνας που πατά το πόδι του στην Αυστραλία. Γνωστός στους Αυστραλούς της εποχής του ως Τζίνγκερ, είχε καταδικαστεί για πειρατεία στ’ ανοιχτά της Κρήτης. Αρχικά, καταδικάστηκε σε θάνατο από τους Βρετανούς και στη συνέχεια σε φυλάκιση και εξορία στην Αυστραλία.

Σάμουελ Χάνεμαν 1755 – 1843



Σάμουελ Χάνεμαν

Γερμανός γιατρός, δημιουργός του θεραπευτικού συστήματος εναλλακτικής ιατρικής, που το ονόμασε Ομοιοπαθητική.
Ο Κρίστιαν Φρίντριχ Σάμουελ Χάνεμαν (Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann), γεννήθηκε στις 10 Απριλίου 1755 στο Μάισεν της Σαξωνίας, πόλη κοντά στη Δρέσδη. Γιος ενός ζωγράφου πορσελάνης, άρχισε τις σπουδές του στην ιατρική αντιμετωπίζοντας σοβαρές οικονομικές δυσκολίες και αναγκάστηκε να εργαστεί ως μεταφραστής. Ήταν πολύγλωσσος, αφού γνώριζε Αγγλικά, Γαλλικά, Ιταλικά, Λατινικά, Ελληνικά, Αραβικά, Συροχαλδαϊκά και Εβραϊκά.

Αλμανάκ Βασική Έκδοση 10 Απριλίου

Προβάλλονται μόνο τα σημαντικότερα!
Η πλήρης έκδοση της ημερομηνίας αυτής περιλαμβάνει 116 Γεγονότα, 35 Γεννήσεις και 24 Θανάτους.
Για να δείτε την πλήρη έκδοση ή να ενεργοποιήσετε τα φίλτρα θα πρέπει πρώτα να συνδεθείτε.   Δεν είστε ακόμα συνδρομητής; Μάθετε περισσότερα!
H Πλήρης Έκδοση διατίθεται και ως eBook στο Κατάστημα!  
μ. Χ.
1821
Οι Τούρκοι απαγχονίζουν στην Κωνσταντινούπολη τον πατριάρχη Γρηγόριο Ε’, σε αντίποινα για την Ελληνική Επανάσταση.
1821
Μετά από πολιορκία του κάστρου των Σαλώνων (Άμφισσας) από τον Γκούρα και τον Πανουργιά, οι Τούρκοι που βρίσκονται μέσα σ’ αυτό αναγκάζονται να παραδοθούν. Το γεγονός αυτό είναι καθοριστικό για την εξέλιξη της Επανάστασης στη Στερεά Ελλάδα, καθώς πρόκειται για την πρώτη κατάληψη κάστρου από τους επαναστατημένους Έλληνες.

The Poisons, Potions, and Charms of Shakespeare’s Plays


Shakespeare Potion
John Gerard, Robert Davies, Thomas Johnson, Robert Priest, John Payne, and Rembert Dodoens, ‘The herball or Generall historie of plantes’ (London, 1633), printed by Adam Islip Joice Norton and Richard Whitakers (courtesy Currier Museum of Art Library and Archives)

Retrieving the History of Indonesia’s Massacred Chinese Community


Light of Spirit
FX Harsono, “The Light of Spirit” (2016), installation view, plastic electric candles, LED bulbs, sand, cast cement, wood, 86 ½ x 82 ½ x 118 in. (all images courtesy the artist and Tyler Rollins Fine Art)
For FX Harsono, art is activism. Over the past four decades, performance, sculpture, and painting have become his means of nonviolent protest against government autocracy and ethnic strife in Indonesia. In his current exhibition The Chronicles of Resilience at the Tyler Rollins Gallery, New York, Harsono pays homage to the massacre of his own Chinese minority community between 1947–49, prior to Indonesian independence from the Dutch colonizers in 1949. From the very first influx of Chinese immigrants in Indonesia to the country’s recent torching of Chinese businesses in 1998, Chinese have been long targeted by native Indonesians. In his work, Harsono revives Chinese identity in the region by reprising lost history, archival records, and suppressed memories.

Russia’s Communist Party Wants to Copyright Iconic Red Star Symbol


800px-Red_star.svg
Red star (image via Wikimedia Commons)
Since the Russian Revolution, the red star has served as an international symbol of Communism, spangling the flags and insignia of myriad Communist states. Red stars have also, incidentally, been used in the branding of some major Western corporations: Among them, Macy’s department stores, Heineken brewery, and Italy’s San Pellegrino mineral water producer. Sick and tired of these capitalist pigs stealing its symbolism, the Russian Communist Party is now attempting to internationally copyright the red star, according to the Moscow Times and the Russian-language site Lenta.ru. As the Moscow Times explains:

Microbiologists hone in on the possible route that Hannibal took while crossing the Alps Microbiologists_Found_Hannibal_Route_Across _Alps_1 Posted By: Dattatreya Mandal April 5, 2016 Back in January, we provided a detailed overview of Hannibal Barca, the greatest military general of his generation (circa late 3rd century BC). In that article, we talked about how the ‘audacity’ of the Carthaginian commander (with his ‘multinational’ force) in crossing the Alps was actually a fairly well planned endeavor that was orchestrated to create the very effect of shock-and-awe. However beyond the scale of this overland invasion via the Alps, there has always been a debate concerning the actual geographical point through which Hannibal made his ambitious military foray into Italy. In fact, the confusion regarding this passage was even touched upon by Polybius himself, who wrote an ancient account closest in time to Hannibal’s campaign. But science triumphs where conjecture fails – and this dictum is upheld by a group of microbiologists , as they may have rounded up credible evidence pertaining to the actual point/pass through which Hannibal made his way into the Italian mainland. According to Queen’s University Belfast’s microbiologist Dr Chris Allen and his team – headed by Professor Bill Mahaney, a geomorphologist who hails from York University, Toronto; the geographical juncture through which the multinational forces of Hannibal crossed the Alps equates to the Col de Traversette pass. Interestingly, a similar hypothesis was made by biologist and polymath Sir Gavin de Beer (who was also the director of the British Museum in natural history department), but the conjecture was shot down in the academic realm more than 50 years ago. But this time around, the researchers made use of various scientific applications to back up their claim and the clues were literally found from heaps of dirt. According to Queen’s University Belfast website – Using a combination of microbial metagenome analysis, environmental chemistry, geomorphic and pedological investigation, pollen analyses and various other geophysical techniques, the researchers have shown that a ‘mass animal deposition’ event occurred near the Col de Traversette – that can be directly dated to approximately 2168 cal yr BP, i.e. 218 BC. To that end, the Col de Traversette pass is around 2,600 m (around 8,530 ft) above the sea-level, and such boasted of rich soil that could potentially support the flora needed by the grazing requirements of the animals like horses and pack mules. So from the strategic perspective it does makes sense that Hannibal and his presumably huge baggage train might have halted temporarily and then passed through the zone. In that regard, the logistical numbers game suggests that before crossing the Alps, the Carthaginian general had around 38,000 infantrymen; 8,000 cavalry forces; and 38 elephants. Now as the researchers excavated the dirt in the area, they analysed how the surface soil with its peaty nature fused with plant fibers, gradually gave way to a more compact variety of soil that was mixed with a fine-grained variety. This suggests that the deeper layers of soil (at 40 cm depth) were agitated by some above ground-based pressure of a substantial scale, like the passing of throngs of animals through the zone. Consequently, the experts radiocarbon-dated these soil specimens, and to their surprise the ‘dirt’ was dated from 218 BC – the very year in which Hannibal and his army crossed the Alps. On further laboratory assessment, the microbiologists came to the conclusion that these disturbed layers were also filled with the organic matter of horse dung remains. This crucial discovery was aided by the identification of specific DNA matter found in a type of bacteria called clostridia, usually common inside guts of horses. Moreover, the researchers have also potentially detected a particular horse tapeworm egg inside the studied samples. This can pave the way for more organic-based discoveries, including that of elephant horse tapeworm eggs. Lastly, it should be noted that beyond the scope of microbiology, there is the entire ambit of archaeology to consider. In that regard, the study can be undoubtedly claimed as a success if the researchers come across actual physical specimens of human activity and warfare in this Alps pass – like remnants of weapons, equipment and artifacts. Until then we can only hope that this team is (literally) on the right path that could unravel the mysteries behind one of the greatest military feats of all time in humanity’s history. Source: Queen’s University Belfast / Via: The Guardian


Microbiologists_Found_Hannibal_Route_Across _Alps_1
Back in January, we provided a detailed overview of Hannibal Barca, the greatest military general of his generation (circa late 3rd century BC). In that article, we talked about how the ‘audacity’ of the Carthaginian commander (with his ‘multinational’ force) in crossing the Alps was actually a fairly well planned endeavor that was orchestrated to create the very effect of shock-and-awe. However beyond the scale of this overland invasion via the Alps, there has always been a debate concerning the actual geographical point through which Hannibal made his ambitious military foray into Italy. In fact, the confusion regarding this passage was even touched upon by Polybius himself, who wrote an ancient account closest in time to Hannibal’s campaign. But science triumphs where conjecture fails – and this dictum is upheld by a group of microbiologists , as they may have rounded up credible evidence pertaining to the actual point/pass through which Hannibal made his way into the Italian mainland.

Archaeologists excavate a 2,000-year old Agora inside Turkish ‘Tripoli’



Archaeologists_ 2,000-Year Old _Agora_Turkish_Tripoli_1Credit: Turkish Archaeological New
There are many ancient cities with the moniker of Tripoli, with Libya’s capital being one of the famous examples that started out as a Phoenician settlement in 7th century BC. But this time around, we are talking about the Turkish Tripoli, an ancient city whose ruins are located in the country’s western province of Denizli (Buldan district). Historically, this Tripoli started out as a Greco-Lydian city (corresponding to the Hellenistic era) that occupied a strategic juncture connecting the regions of Phrygia, Karia and Lydia. And now researchers from the Pamukkale University (PAU) Archaeology Department, have confirmed the commercial value of this settlement even in the later Roman era, by excavating a 2,000-year-old market place.

Now considering the Greek influence on the city in the preceding years, the marketplace was more than just a commercial area – with the agora also doubling as a public gathering zone (for political, athletic and trading demonstrations). The biggest marketplace or agora inside Tripoli constituted a 2,500 sq m (or 27,000 sq ft) designated area – which equates to half the size of an American football field. And this time around, the archaeologists uncovered an extensive gallery east of this agora that was enclosed during its usage in the ancient times. In fact, this was the third market area that the researchers have excavated inside the site limits, thus suggesting the importance of trade in Tripoli. In that regard, as we mentioned before, the settlement occupied a strategic location that fell on an ancient road that connected various cities of Asia Minor, including the urban areas on the western Anatolian side like Smyrna and Ephesus.

Animated short film presents the profoundly massive loss of life in World War II


Animated_Short_Massive_Human_Loss_World_War_IICopyright: Getty Images
Last time around, we talked about how more than 800,000 Muslims probably took part in First World War, thus harking back at the immense scope of the ‘Great War’. But when it comes to the ambit of global conflicts, it is the World War II that balefully casts its shadow on the sheer scale of man-made destruction. To that end, the real ‘quotient’ of destruction brought on by the war really hits us when analysed from the perspective of human casualties. And that is exactly what an animated data visualization by Neil Halloran achieves, with the aptly named ‘The Fallen of World War II’ project. The over 15 minutes video graphically showcases three different statistical scopes – all representing the loss of human lives. The first section of the video deals with number of soldiers killed based on nationalities; the second section entails civilian deaths (that also includes Holocaust); and the third (and final) segment assesses the contextual ambit of World War II fatalities when compared to both past and future conflicts.

Incredible VR animation gives you a nifty 3D tour inside the Roman Colosseum


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Blood, dust, sands and glory – these are the words that come to mind when traversing the pop cultural landscape of the Colosseum. However from the architectural perspective, unlike other ancient theaters, the oval-shaped, freestanding amphitheater was a Roman invention. And, as the jewel in the crown of such imposing Roman-made architectural specimens, the Colosseum holds its head high with the towering elliptical tiers that rise to 180 ft (55 m) from the heart of the ‘eternal city’. From those very seats, the ‘bloodthirsty’ audience watched on the impeccably choreographed mock battles, exotic animal parades and their merciless slaughtering, and the gruesome gladiatorial fights. But as far as history goes, there was more to this exalted arena, than just the collective ancient display of viciousness and pomp. To that end, the folks over at Colosseum Lives (check their website) have concocted a 3D video from the VR perspective (using Oculus Rift), and it aptly presents a grandiose scope of the Colosseum, accompanied by good commentary.

Know the dimensions –

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But before we delve into the video, we should comprehend the sheer dimensions of this architectural masterpiece. To that end, being elliptical in plan, the Colosseum is 189 m (615 ft) long, and 156 m (510 ft) wide – which accounts for almost 500 m (1,640 ft) in circumference, with a base area of 6 acres (24,000 sq m). The inner arena is similarly oval, with length of 87 m (287 ft) and width of 55 m (180 ft); while being surrounded by a 5 m (16 ft) high wall on all sides – after which the seat tiers started. As we mentioned before, these tiers ultimately rose to a height of 180 ft (55 m) – thus making the total volume of the Italian amphitheater a whopping 1,320,000 cubic m or 47 million cubic ft. So, it comes as no surprise that during peak events, the Colosseum could account for more than 50,000 spectators.

Early Societies: Peaceful Co-existance Vs Violent Social Control (Μικρή συλλογή άρθρων)


A)New study suggests that not all of our ancestors were predisposed towards violence and warfare


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A few days ago, we talked about how researchers were perplexed by the sheer scale of violence in Bronze Age northern Europe, as was recently evidenced from a huge battle (3,250 years ago) that probably involved over 4,000 people. In fact, episodes of massacre have also been discovered by archaeologists, with examples pertaining to even prehistoric times, like the 10,000-year-old brutal scene in Kenya and the 7,000-year old battered skeletal remains in Germany. However this time around, Japanese researchers (in collaboration with British researchers) have made a study that suggests that not all of our ancestors were predisposed towards violence and conflicts. Their detailed analysis focused on the Jomon period (from 13,000 – 300 BC) based in Japan, and the assessment of skeletons and remains showed very little evidence of violent deaths.

Creating a Spatial History of Slavery through Abstraction


Torkwase Dyson, painting from "Strange Fruit (Series)," on view in 'Unkeeping' at Eyebeam (photo by Christine Butler)
Torkwase Dyson, painting from ‘Strange Fruit (Series),’ on view in ‘Unkeeping’ at Eyebeam (photo by Christine Butler)
Minimalist abstraction of the 20th century often feels placeless. Tony Smith’s angular, inky sculptures could have crawled out of a dimension void of organic life; Mark Rothko’s repeating black canvases in a Houston chapel reflected the space’s lack of specific religion. But Torkwase Dyson’s dark, geometric paintings evoke this history of abstraction to retrieve places that have been lost, namely the built environments of slavery and racism.

In His New Book, Daniel Clowes Explores Our Urge to Change the Past


Cover of 'Patience' by Daniel Clowes, published by Fantagraphics Books (2016) (all photos by the author for Hyperallergic)
Cover of ‘Patience’ by Daniel Clowes, published by Fantagraphics Books (2016) (all photos by the author for Hyperallergic)

The Knights Templar apparently lived long due to their controlled healthy diets


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Mysteries and Knights Templar seem to go hand-in-hand when it comes to the realm of history. In fact, their full name ‘Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon’ (or Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici in Latin) directly pertains to the enigmatic Temple of Solomon – an ancient structure whose existence is still debated among the historians. And while the Templars did exhibit their fanatical martial prowess on the battlefields (a ‘quality’ conducive to Crusades), the moniker of ‘Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ’ didn’t really do the organization any justice. That is because by 13th century AD, the Order managed a huge economic infrastructure throughout Christendom while also making innovations in early European banking systems. However, beyond enigmatic symbols, deep fortunes, and fervent warfare, the Templars also surprised many a history enthusiast with their apparent longevity. And that may have resulted from their pattern of a controlled diet that eschewed traditional European food items.

Classic Beauties: Top 5 of the most popular movie cars



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For all of the car fanatics out there, this is news for you! One particular man who happens to be famous for his work is at it again. While movie fanatics may not know who Eddie Paul is, car fanatics will. Paul is the man who takes care of the cars that grace the movie and TV screens. He has done cars like Q from James Bond and for movies such as Grease, Cobra, E.T., and even The Fast and Furious.
He has been given a new job – trying to revive a model from the luxury carmaker Dusenberg. Paul was known for jumping out of the General Lee on Dukes of Hazzard while working as the stuntman. If he can pull off this plan of resurrecting the luxury car, then it will be fantastic for the Duesenberg Automotive Company.

Mata Hari-the dramatic story of the exotic dancer,courtesan and notorious spy during WWI




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‘”A courtesan, I admit it. A spy, never! I have always lived for love and pleasure.”
-Mata Hari-
Margaretha Zelle was born in Leeuwarden, the Netherlands.Her father owned a hat shop, made successful investments in the oil industry, and became affluent enough to give Margaretha a lavish early childhood that included exclusive schools until the age of 13. Soon after Margaretha’s father went bankrupt in 1889, her parents divorced, and then her mother died in 1891. Her father remarried in Amsterdam on 9th February 1893 to Susanna Catharina ten Hoove.The family fell apart, and Margaretha moved to live with her godfather, Mr. Visser, in Sneek. In Leiden, she studied to be a kindergarten teacher, but when the headmaster began to flirt with her conspicuously, she was removed from the institution by her offended godfather. A few months later, she fled to her uncle’s home in The Hague.

Young Israeli boy finds 3,000-year-old ancient figurine





Young children are known for having a lot of energy and being constantly on the move.  One particular child in Israel was running around one day when he came across something magnificent – he kicked up a 3,000-year-old ancient artifact.
Ori Greenhunt found the figurine poking out of the ground while he was climbing on a dirt pile with his friends.  They were near the Tel Rehov archaeological site.  Knowing what significance the area had and what the figurine could be worth, the boy carefully took the figurine home.
Archaeologists believe that the artifact dates back around 3,400 years, and it may be what is known as the curvaceous fertility goddess Astarte.

Dynasphere: the giant mono-wheel electric car from the 30’s that never left its prototype stage …



When the humans invented the wheel it was the beginning of a long and a rather bizarre list of vehicle designs. One of those, crazy and in a way ingenious attempts for an innovative vehicle was the 1930’s giant monowheel called the Dynasphere patented by J. A. (John Archibald) Purves from Taunton, Somerset, UK.
The idea for this bizarre and in  a strange way an awesome vehicle that was also nicknamed “Jumbo” came out as an inspiration from a sketch made by Leonardo da Vinci. Purves designed the mono-wheeled electric car together with his son and tested it out on Brean Sands, near Weston-super-mare.
A witness said, ” As a lad I lived in Weston.One day in the 1930s  I went to the beach and saw a man trying to ride a huge wheel across the sands.it wasn’t very successful and wobbled about. I have always wondered what it was or whether I imagined it.

Folding bicycle and their wide usage during both World Wars




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A folding bicycle is a bicycle designed to fold into a compact form, facilitating transport, and storage. When folded, the bikes can be more easily carried into buildings and houses or on public transportation (facilitating mixed-mode commuting and bicycle commuting), and more easily stored in compact living quarters or aboard a car, boat or plane.

The Nazi Invasion of the Balkans & Yugoslavia – A Costly Victory





In early 1941, Adolf Hitler could look at a map of Eastern Europe and think that his plans were progressing nicely. The invasion of the Soviet Union, Operation Barbarossa, was coming in a few short months, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria had joined the Tripartite Pact, and Yugoslavia’s government signed on to the same on March 25th, 1941.
Perhaps the only problem was the Italian’s stalled invasion of Greece from Albania, which began in October 1940. In fact, the Greek Army had counter-attacked and were pushing the Italians well back into Albania. But plans were already in place for the German military to sweep in from Bulgaria and take care of what the Italians couldn’t. Hitler knew he needed to control Mediterranean ports if the North Africa Campaign was to be won.