Πέμπτη, 12 Ιουλίου 2012

United States of Greater Austria


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The United States of Greater Austria (GermanVereinigte Staaten von Groß-Österreich) was a proposal, conceived by a group of scholars surrounding the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand, that never came to pass. This specific proposal was conceived by Aurel Popovici in 1906.



Linguistic map of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
As the twentieth century started to unfold, the greatest problem facing the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary was that it consisted of twelve distinctly different ethnic groupings, of which only two, the Germans and Hungarians (who together accounted for about 44% of the total population), wielded any power or control. The other ten groupings (CzechsPoles,RutheniansRomaniansCroatiansSlovaksBosniaksSerbsSlovenes and Italians) hardly wielded any power at all, only Croats had limited autonomy in the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia. The idea of the Dual Monarchy system of 1867 had been to split the previous Austrian Empire into two realms, one German-dominated, the other Hungarian-dominated. However, after various demonstrations, uprisings and acts of terrorism, it became readily apparent that the notion of two ethnic groups dominating the other ten could not survive in perpetuum.
Franz Ferdinand had planned to redraw the map of Austria-Hungary radically, creating a number of ethnically and linguistically dominated semi-autonomous "states" which would all be part of a larger confederation renamed the United States of Greater Austria. Under this plan, language and cultural identification was encouraged, and the disproportionate balance of power would be corrected. The idea was set to encounter heavy opposition from the Hungarian part of the Dual Monarchy, since a direct result of the reform would have been a significant territorial loss for Hungary.
However, the Archduke was assassinated at Sarajevo in 1914, triggering the outbreak of the First World War. After the war Austria-Hungary was dismantled and several new nation states were created, and various Austro-Hungarian territories were ceded to neighbouring countries by the victorious Entente powers.

[edit]Proposed states from Aurel Popovici


Proposed map of the United States of Greater Austria and the major ethnic groups of Austria-Hungary
The idea came from Hungarian revolutionary Lajos Kossuth, who proposed to transform the Habsburg Empire into a so-called "Danubian State", a federal state with autonomous regions.[1][2] The following territories were supposed to become states of the federation after the reform. The majority ethnic group within each territory is also listed.
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Proposed map of the United States of Greater Austria, by Popovici, 1906
In addition, a number of mostly German-speaking enclaves in eastern Transylvania, the Banat and other parts of Hungary, southern Slovenia, large cities (such as PragueBudapestLviv and others) and elsewhere were to have autonomy within the respective territory.
“The great origin, language, customs and mentality diversity of different nationalities requires, for the whole Empire of the Habsburgs, a certain state form, which can guarantee that not a single nationality will be threatened, obstructed or offended in its nationalpolitical life, in its private development, in its national pride, in one word – in its way of feeling and living”

[edit]References

  1. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica: Kossuth article"
  2. ^ Lessons of the War and the Peace Conference : Oreste Ferrara