Πέμπτη, 18 Αυγούστου 2016

Byzantine Transfer of Population policy



"In 941 the entire Arab tribe of Banu H'abid, discontented apparently with the (ruling) Hamdanids, emigrated from the region of Nisibis in Mesopotamia and came to settle in the Byzantine Empire. The new arrivals numbered 12,000 horsemen and brought with them, besides their families,  their slaves, flocks and all their transportable goods. They were followed, in addition, by many of their neighbors. Once in Byzantine territory, they embraced Christianity, enrolled in the Byzantine army, and in return were given lands, animals, clothes and even some precious objects" -

The Transfer of Population as a Policy in the Byzantine Empire, Peter Chanaris, p.148

"Transfer of Population are attested for the later centuries, though the Empire declined politically and lost its important territories. In the twelfth century Pechenegs were settled in Macedonia, Serbs in Bythinia (Βιθυνία), near Nicomedia (Νικομήδεια), and perhaps also Armenians brought there from Cilicia. In the thirteenth century the Emperors of Nicaea settled Cumans both in their European and Asiatic provinces. Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologous brought Tzacones, ancient remnants of the Lacedaemonians, from the Morea in order to repopulation Constantinople after its recovery from the Latins in 1261. The same Emperor settled a number of Turks, followers of the Seljuk Sultan Izzedin Kaikaus II in the Dobrogea. These, according to *some* authorities, still survive in the present day Gagauz who live near present day Varna and farther north. Descendants of the followers of Izzedin were also settled in Macedonia where we still find them in the late fourteenth century. Others, descendants of Izzedin himself, found their way into the Morea, established themselves there, and intermarried with the Byzantines. The famous family of Melikitae, whom we find in the fifteenth century, were apparently an offshoot of these Turks. Thus, throughout its duration, the Byzantine Empire made it a matter of policy, for reasons of state, to transfer peoples from one region to another within its borders and also to accept for settlement barbarians who came to it or were invited or had siezed it for that purpose. Foremost among these reasons of state were for military purposes. There is little doubt that the transfers of Tiberius, Maurice, Justinian II, Basil II and others were resorted to because the elements involved were needed for the army in some particular spot. It was indeed these transfers and settlements of new peoples which enabled the empire to reorganize its armies and so survive the crisis of the seventh and eighth centuries and then take offensive." - The Transfer of Population as a Policy in the Byzantine Empire, Peter Chanaris, p.149-150\\\
Byzantine Comonwealth of Nations 

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